A NEW GENUS AND NEW SPECIES OF Cocconotini (GRYLLOPTERA: TETTIGONIOIDEA. PSEUDOPHYLLIDAE. CYRTOPHYLLINAE) FROM VENEZUELA AND TRINIDAD, WITH OTHER RECORDS FOR THE TRIBE.

Lyman Ent. Mus. and Res. Lab. and Dep. of Ent. MacDonald College Campus. McGill University. 21.III Lakeshore Road Ste-Anne de Bellevue, Canada H9X ICO.

 

RESUMEN

Cojedebius kathleenae n.g. n.sp, y Cocconotus cerdai n. sp. son descritos de material colectado en el Estado Cojedes, Venezuela. El primero relacionado con el género Incanotus Beier y el segundo con Cocconotus insularis (Bruner), el cual también se registra de varias localidades en Trinidad. C. unicolor n.sp., se describe de Trinidad y especies de Schedocentrus Hebard se registrar de esa Isla y de Venezuela. Al parecer una forma de alas largas de Nastonotus tarsatus IBolívar es registrada de Venezuela.

 

ABSTRACT

Cojedebius kathleenae n.g. n.sp. and Cocconotus cerdai n. sp., are described from the state of Cojedes, Venezuela. The former is related to the genus Incanotus Beier and the latter to Cocconotus insularis (Bruner), which is recorded from a few additional localities in Trinidad. C. unicolor n.sp., is also described from Trinidad, and species of Schedocentrus Hebard are reported from that island and from Venezuela. What appears to be a long-winged form of Nastonotus tarsatus 1. Bolívar is also recorded from the latter.

Introduction

As an adjunct to the programme of the third meeting of the Pan American Acridological Society in Maracay, Venezuela, in July, 1981, excursions to various collecting sites were organized by Sr. Ing. Francisco Cerdá. Among those participating were members of a small group from the Lyman Entomological Museum and Research Laboratory of McGill University, and, in the course of one such excursion, two new species of cocconotine Pseudophyllidae were discovered. One of these belongs to Cocconotus Stal itself, and the other to a new genus related to Incanotus Beier. Further material was also collected on the same excursion by colleagues from other institutions.

The Tribe Cocconotini is a fairly large one, comprising more than 30 genera and about 130 species, all from tropical America. The most recent monograph of the group is included in Beier (1960), to which a few supplementary genera and species were later added (Beier 1962). The group is fully catalogued in Beier (1963), except for one species described recently by the same author in Morris and Beier (1962).

Both of the new species referred to were taken during daylight hours in patches of fairly level native forest in southern Cojedes, where they were found deeply concealed amongst the long, saw edged leaves of a large Agave-like succulent plant growing on the forest floor. These plants presented a considerable hazard to, and inflicted painful wounds on, the collectors. Also present in the same formidable hiding places were small numbers of the large tettigonioid Copiphora longiacauda Audinet-Serville (Conocephalidae, Conocephalinea, Copiphorini), whose very powerful, sharp mandibles also drew collectors' bloodl It is probably safe to say that the insects in question remained in their safe, day-time retreats until dark, before emerging to forage and to mate further afield at ninght. Their stridulation was not recorded An interesting feature observed for most members of both species - and which may be quite general among Cocconotini, though not noticed in the literature-was that the frons, in life, was bright emeraldgreen. This served to camouflage the insects very successfully as they rested, head upwards, amongst the closely pressed, long, bright green colour of the frons, which became testaceous (except for a couple in which it faded to a pale olive-green). In the species of the new genus, the frons (and sometimes the antennal bases) of some individuals (mostly males) was also bright emerald-green in life, though in others it was brownish. In a few cases, the emerald-green colour remained quite bright on preservation, as it did in the single male assigned here to Nastonotus tarsatus 1. Bolívar. How long the green colour may be retained after death without special treatment is not known, but the period is certainly more than two years.

In addition to describing and recording the recently collected Venezuelan material referred to above, opportunity is taken here to include information on further Cocconotini, including another new species of Cocconotus collected in the past in neighbouring Trinidad. A few miscellaneous records of other species of the tribe from elsewhere are appended, though. only a small amount of material from the author's institution is considered for the present.

 

Cojedebius new genus

This genus appears to be rather similar to Incanotus Beier, 1960, but its type species is smaller than species currently placed in that genus (Beier 1969). Indeed, it is rather small for the tribe as a whole.

Diagnosis. Agrees with Beier's diagnosis for Incanotus' except as follows: antennae indistinctly annulated (presumably not a reliable generic character); granular tubercles of lateral pronotal lobe less strongly raised, lacking from a small triangular patch anterior to lower part of posterior ("typical") sulcus (this is somewhat similar to related genus Schedocentrus Hebard, 1924); posterior margin of pronotal disk not at all biarcuate metasternal pit almost subquadrate externally (round and deep internally): tegmina and hind wings rather narrow, short and tapering apically (presumably not a reliable generic character); inner genicular lobes of all femora with apical spines, outer genicular lobe of hind femur also spired; middle tibiae unspined dorsally; hind tibiae with spines of outer dorsal row not reduced in number, puncturation of abdominal sterna very faint (probably not a generic character); last abdominal tergum of male simple, transverse, supra-anal plate small, partly concealed, triangular: male subgenital plate rather short and broad, somewhat tapering and with a rather small, V-shaped apical notch; male cerci very short and robust, each with a large, prominent, inwardly-directed, terminal spine; female subgenital plate less specialized than in Incanotus (terminating in a broadly V-shaped notch, without prominent terminal slit); ovipositor stouter and more distinctly curved upward (probably not a reliable generic character) though possessing indications of the laterodistal row of small tubercles found in Incanotus. Etymology: Derived from the name of the Venezuelan state in which it was found: "living in Cojedes", gender masculine.

 

Cojedebius kathleenae, new species

(Fig. 1,2)

Holotype, male (Figs. 1A,B y 2A,C) VENEZUELA, E(sta)do Cojedes, 14 km N. Baúl, R(ou)te 8, in saw-edged Agave, 13.V11.1981, K.E. Kevan, F.N. (= stop no.) 9, Lyman Entomological Museum Expedition to Venezuela, July 1981. In Lyman Entomological Museum, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Québec, Canada.

Head: (Fig. 2A) rounded dorsally; anterior view with rather convex sides, eyes not protruding beyond genae; median ocellus rather small; apex of antennal scape with a long, strong, conical, spine-like process on inner (anterior) margin; antennal pedicel somewhat punctate; antennal scrobes projecting for less than one-third of length of antennal scape and a little beyond apex of fastigium of vertex, space between their apices a little less than length of a scrobe; terminal segment of maxillary palp almost as long as two preceding segments together; fastigium of vertex acutely triangular, basal tubercles reduced; genae, frons, clypeus and labrum rather smooth, genae with a few small, scattered tubercles, frons with slight indications of same, genal carinae obsolescent, lateral frontal carinae strong except immediately below antennal bases.

Thorax: pronotum in dorsal view more or less parallel-sided, distinctly longer than wide, but much shorter than anterior femur, disk densely and strongly granulate throughout, its anterior margin distinctly rounded, posterior margin weakly so, metazona rather flat and laterally carinate except immediately behind posterior ("typical") transverse sulcus, distinctly longer than mesozona, latter and prozona of about equal lengths, together slightly longer than metazona, both transverse sulci of disk straight, posterior one crossed by a short, longitudinal groove, lateral lobes about one-third longer than deep, deeper anteriorly, strongly granular, but less prominently than on disk, all margins raised, anterior margin weakly oblique, forming a rounded right-angle, inferior margin slightly ascending distal, posterior margin a little more definitely oblique than anterior margin and forming a rounded obtuse angle with inferior margin, posterior sulcus curving forwardly and obliquely downwards to unite with anterior sulcus in dorsal part of lobe and reaching inferior margin of lobe at about its middle, a triangular patch anterior to it devoid of granular tubercles; prosternal spines long and straight; mesosternum with lateral lobes triangular, their outer margins straight and parallel with body length, the oblique grooves between them converging to a point distad to form a median triangle; metasternum with lateral lobes almost quadrate, their lateral margins straight and parallel to body-length, externoposterior angles broadly rounded, metasternal pit as indicated in generic diagnosis.

Wings: tegmina and hind wings somewhat abbreviated, of aproximately equal length, at rest extending backwards only about as far as apex of abdomen (excluding terminalia), not reaching hind knees; tegmina narrow, tapered to a blunt point, strongly, densely and evenly reticulate throughout.

Legs: of moderate length for tribe; anterior femora scarcely compressed basally, about as long as head and pronotum together, with 3 inner ventral spines, inner (but not outer) genicular love spired; middle femora slightly shorter and more slender than anterior femora, with 2 outer ventral spines on left femur, but none on right1 inner (but not outer) genicular lobe spired; hind femora moderately stout, with 6 ventral spines2, both genicular lobes spired; anterior and middle tibiae smooth dorsally, with 6 ventral spines in each row, except for left middle tibia in which spines are very small and reduced to 53; posterior tibiae with 10-11 dorsal4 and 9-10 ventral spines in each row.

Abdomen: sterna with widely dispersed, small feeble puncturation; supra-anal plate small, equilaterally triangular, acute with a distinct, median, longitudinal furrow; cerci short, heavy, subglobular in lateral view, broadly rounded on outer faces and excavated on inner faces in dorsal view, each terminating in a large, strong, recurved, hook-like spine; subgenital plate little longer than broad, widely tapering and with a triangular, apical notch, styli rod-like, straight and slightly divergent in dorsal view, very slightly upcurved in lateral view (Fig. 2C), almost as long as dorsal aspect of subgenital plate proper.

Coloration: general appearance testaceous, suffused or diffusely, mostly indistinctly, mottled fuscous, including eyes, indistinct antennal annulations and legs; fastigium frontis, margins of antennal scrobes, and antennal scapes emerald-green (last suffused fuscous anteriorly), antennal pedicels fuscous anteriorly (ventrally); frons emerald-green, except for a pair of narrow, dark fuscous, vertical stripes adjoining lateral frontal carinae; latter pale yellowish, margined fuscous externally; clypeus testaceous, except for emerald-green suffusion dorsally; labrum infuscated, except for marginal area (i.e., with a large, central, semi-circular fuscous area); terminal segment of maxillary palpus with an elongate, reddish-brown mark along outer face; mandibles testaceous; genae infuscated except ventrally, darker dorsally towards vertex and occiput, a pale, narrow, longitudinal stripe separating these from genae fuscous; fastigium of vertex fuscous, indications of its basal tubercles a little darker; pronotal disk lightly infuscated with testaceous granular tubercles, its anterior and posterior margins with a few dark maculations, its lateral margins (including lateral carinae of metazona) forming pale, more or less continuous, somewhat irregular, narrow stripes; lateral pronotal lobe mostly testaceous ventrally, suffused fuscous centrally, becoming more deeply fuscous dorsally and contrasting with pale lateral stripes of pronotal disk, upper part of anterior region of lobe in vicinity of this stripe with an emerald-green patch; tegmina, including stridulatory area fuscous with testaceous reticulation, base of median vein surrounding stridulatory apparatus, and entire anal margin pale testaceous, basal half of radial vein green; hind wings infuscated throughout, genicular regions of posterior femora, and most tarsal segments dorsally, infuscated, extreme bases of penultimate tarsal segments black; spines of legs testaceous with dark reddish to blackish tips; abdomen with basal terga largely blackish posteriorly, distal terga and supra-anal plate mottled sepia; sterna paler; subgenital plate and cerci pale testaceous.

Measurements: body (excluding styli) 21.5, pronotum 4,8, tegmen 15.3 x 3.3, stridulatory field 2.8 x 1.9, speculum 1.2 x 1.0, anterior femur 7.3, middle femur 6.9, posterior femur 14.0, subgenital plate (median, without styli) 2.7, styli 1.5 mm.

Allotype, female (Fig. 1C, 2B,D): As holotype except for collectors, V.R. & E.G. Vickery. Same depository.

Agrees generally with holotype, though slightly larger, less distinctly coloured, and spination of legs differing as indicated in Footnotes 3-6 (p. 7). Female abdominal terminalia (Fig. 2D) as follows: pleural sclerites on either side of penultimate tergum each with a prominent tubercle; supraánal plate small, equilaterally triangular, acute, with a median, longitudinal groove; cerci straight, elongate-conical, rather abruptly narrowed apically, not or scarcely surpassing apex of supra-anal plate, subgenital plate transversely subtriangular, with a terminal, median broadly V-shaped notch, outer posterior angles somewhat rounded; ovipositor (Fig. 2D) stout and deep, slightly upcurved apically, not elongate but somewhat longer than middle tibia, strongly denticulate dorsally in distal half finely serrated ventrally in distal third, with a row of a few minute, scattered, lateral tubercles in middle of apical parts of dorsal valves (scarcely discernible on left side). The coloration differs from that of the holotype principally as follows: fastigium frontis, margins of antennal scrobes and antennal scapes fuscous; frons and entire clypeus testaceous (even in life), but otherwise similarly marked; reddish mark on last segment of maxillary palpus shorter, fastigium verticis testaceous distad, fuscous proximad; pronotum with no green on lateral pronotal lobe; tegmina more uniformly coloured, without pale or green main veins or pale anal margins; subgenital plate fuscous; ovipositor plate fuscous; ovipositor testaceous in basal half, reddish brown in distal half, extreme margins of valves blackish.

Measurements: body 27.5 (with ovipositor 34), pronotum 5.0, tegmen 18.5 x 4.4, anterior femur 8.1, middle femur 8.3, posterior femur 15.8, ovipositor 11.2 mm.

Paratypes: VENEZUELA (Estado) Cojedes: 1 male , 28 kg SS. J(un)ct(ion) R(ou)t (s) s 8 & 13 on Rt. 8, forest (this is almost exactly the same as the holotype locality, differently expressed), 13.VII.1981, (d.) Otte et al No. 13; 6 males , 6 females , Hato Mataclara, 60° 30'E., 9°S., 12.VI11981, (D.) Otte et al. No. 11. All in Academy of Natural Sciencies, Philadelphia, U.S.A.

These agree in general terms with the holotype or allotype showing differences in the spination of the legs as noted in Footnotes 14 one female and three male paratypes (including the first) retain some green or greenish colour on the frons, etc., and at the bases of the main veins, two females have pale testaceous frontes which were probably green in life, but the remainder (both sexes) have brownish frontes which, like that of the allotype, were ranging from 20.5 to 23.5 and females from 25.5 (33 with ovipositor) to 32 (30) mm in body length.

Two of the green-froted males from Hato Mataclara bear Dr. G.H. Hewitt's cytological preparation numbers V.81 86 and 87.

Etymology: After the author's wife, Kathleen E. Kevan, who collected the holotype

 

Genus Schedocentrus Hebard, 1924

This genus is a rather large one, Beier (1960, 1962, 1963), giving 30 species from various regions of tropical South America, mostly at higher elevations. Nine species (one dubious according to Beier, 1969) are assigned to the subgenus Proidiarthron Beier 1969, and the remainder (including another dubious species) to the subgenus Schedocentrus, sensu stricto. It is possible that specimens listed immediately below, which belong to the former subgenus, may represent a new species, but they seem to agree with the following:

 

Schedocentrus speculates Beier, 1960

So far as one may judge from the original description, the specimens noted below do not differ significantly from S. (Proidiarthron) speculates, which was described from northern Argentina, southern Brazil and (with a query) eastern Colombia. It may be noted, however, that the apical processes of the last male tergum appear to be very slightly longer and a little less inwardly curved than in Beier's (1960) figure. This could, however, merely be an artifact, and without authenticated material of S. speculatus for comparison, there seem to be insufficient grounds (other than geographical distribution) for recognizing a new species. The female (but not the male) has the tegmina slightly darkened in the vicinity of many of the cross-veins, but little importance can be attached to this.

The specimens in question are as follows: TRINIDAD: 2.X.1922, Abdul (collector), 1 male ; Balandra Bay, 12-17.VIII. F. Bennett, 1° (Both Lyman Entomological Museum).

 

Schedocentrus sp.

In addition to the above, an unidentifiable immature specimen of another species of this genus was collected during the excursion mentioned in the introduction, as follows: VENEZUELA: (Estado) Cojedes, 28 km S. of junction of Routes 8 and 13 on Route 8, forest, 13.VI1.1981, (D.) Otte et al., 1 juv(last-instar female ). (In Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, U.S.A.).

 

Genus Cocconotus Stal, 1973

Prior to the present publication, this genus included at least 29, and possibly 31 species. All but two of them are covered (with their synonymy) in Beier's (1960) monograph. One species was added in a supplement by Beier (1962). Beier (1963) cites the relevant literature to all but the most recently described species (Beier in Morris and Beier, 1982). All but two species assigned to the subgenus Trachymetopon Beier, 1960, and four (including two dubious ones) placed in the subgenus Anoplocercus Beier, 1960, belong to the subgenus Cocconotus, s. qtr. This includes the new species described herein. The genus is known only from tropical Central and northern South American, including the island of Trinidad. Only one species, namely C. Iaevifrons (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1985) has previously been reported from Venezuela, and one, C. insularis (Bruner, 1906), from Trinidad. The new Venezuelan species here described is more similar to the latter than to any other; the new species from Trinidad does not appear to be particularly closely related to any of the species mentioned.

 

Cocconotus insularis (Bruner, 1906)

(Fig. 3)

This species was described (in the genus Bliastes Stal, 1873), on the basis of two females only, from the island of Trinidad, but without more exact locality. Beier (1960) was apparently unfamiliar with it and gives no information beyond what is in Burner's (1906) original description. He was, in fact, misled by the latter into indicating, in his key to species, that C. insularis has no inner genicular spine on the hind femur, whereas this is present, if small. Bruner (I.c.) stated that both genicular lobes are rounded (which is true), but he did not indicate whether or not they are spired, so that Beier (I.c.) assumed the negative. It may also be noted that the large, dark patch on the occiput may be less distinctly triangular than in the type specimens, or it may even be interrupted laterally by a pair of short, narrow, longitudinal, pale stripes. The ventral spines on the remora number: anterior, 34; middle, 3; posterior, 5-7. The male of C. insularis has not been described. It is similar to the female, except, of course, for the presence of the tegminal stridulatory apparatus (which is similar to that of C. cerdai, below, and for the sexual characters of the abdominal terminalia. The most characteristic feature of the latter is the form of the cercus. This is moderately stout and slightly curved inwards and bears an inwardly-directed apical spine, as well as a diagnostic, very long, acutely pointed, apical spur, almost as long as the body of the cercus, and directed obliquely downward and distal (Fig. 3C). The male subgenital plate in lateral view is quite straight (Fig.3D), in ventral view it is rather short and broad, parallel-sided in its distal two-thirds, its margins being strongly carinate and its apex having a broad V-shaped notch, styli straight, parallel, about a quarter as long as the subgenital plate proper (Fig. 3D).

The following specimens are known to me: TRINIDAD: St. Augustine, 21.1X.1926, H.A. Ballou, 1 male (det B.P. Uvarow, 1926, as Bliastes insularis) (in collection of Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture (I.C.T.A.), now Southern Campus of the University of the West Indies, Trinidad5) the same, 26.IV.1935, Ruth O'Connor, 1 female (I.C.T.A.5); the same X1.1940, H.S. Darling, Id juv. (in Lyman Entomological Museum (L.E.M.)); the same, on wall, 8.II1.1942, E. McC. Callan, 1 male juv. (I.C.T.A.5); the same, in garage, 22.III.1942, D.K. (McE.) Kevan, 1 male (I.C.T.A.?5); the same, open garage, 14.V.1942, D.K. (McE.) Kevan, 1< (L.E.M.); Mt: Aripo, among cacao at 1000 ft., lO.X.1942, D.K. (McE.) Kevan, 1G (I.C.T.A.?5); Caroni, 22.V.1961, N. Gopal, 1 female (L.E.M.); Arima Valley, simla, I.III.1966,V. (R.)Vickery, 1 male (L.E.M.).

 

Cocconotus cerdai, new species

(Fig. 4,5)

As noted previously this species is closest to C. insularis (Bruner), from which it differs in lacking infuscation on the frons (which is emerald-green in life), in having, generally, a more rounded dark patch on the dorsal surface of the head, and fewer ventral spines on the remora, as well as in the male abdominal terminalia. In the present species the subterminal spine of the male cercus is quite short and the subgenital plate longer, narrower and somewhat upwardly curved (Fig. 5D).

In Beier's (1960) key to species, C. cerdai would come close to the only other recorded Venezuelan species, C. Iaevifrons (Brunner von Wattenwyl), except that the femoral and tibial spines are pale (with only tips dark), not black. That species also differs as follows: tegmina and hind wings shorter; ventral femoral spines more numerous (anterior, 4; middle, 3-4; posterior, 5-6), though the number is variable (even for a single specimen) in both species; hind tibiae with less numerous dorsal spines; last abdominal tergum of male with a dorsal, bow-shaped depression (this may be an artifact); supraanal plate in both sexes posteriorly excavated (not simply triangular); male cerci without a marked subterminal spine (though a terminal one is present); male subgenital plate less deeply notched. In coloration, C. laevifrons differs in having the frons mostly black, except for a pair of pale, vertical stripes below the eyes, mandibles more extensiplate less deeply notched. In coloration, C. Iaevifrons differs in having the frons mostly black except for a pair of pale, vertical stripes below the eyes, mandibles more extensively (lack, pronotum scarcely darkened in the middle (probably a variable character), more distinctly darkened anterior tibiae, somewhat infuscated middle tibiae, and ovipositor blackish dorsally at base.

Holotype, male (Fig. 4A, 5A): VENEZUELA E(sta)do Cojedes, 14 km N. Baúl, Rte. 8, in saw-edged Agave, 13.V11.1981, D.K. McE Kevan, F.N. (=stop no.) 9. Lyman Entomological Museum Expedition to Venezuela, July, 1981. In Lyman Entomological Museum, McGill University, Ste-Anne de Bellevue, Québec, Canada.

Size moderate for genus.

Head: (Fig. 5A) typical for genus; anterior view more or less parallel-sided; eyes rather strongly protruding beyond genae; median ocellus of moderate size; antennal scape with slight swelling mediodorsally at about two-thirds of its length and with short, blunt, terminal process; antennal scrobes projecting for more than one-third of length of scape and considerably beyond apex of fastigium of vertex; space between their apices about as wide as length of a scrobe; maxillary palpus with terminal segment more than twice as long as penultimate segment; fastigium of vertex narrowly triangular, slightly grooved apically, basal tubercles distinct; genae, frons and clypeus smooth, virtually unpunctured, lateral frontal and genal carinae obsolescent dorsally.

Thorax: pronotum rather strongly granulate, slightly sellate, about as long as broad, anterior margin of disk slightly convex, posterior margin almost straight except laterally, metazona rather flat, not carinate laterally, transverse sulci of disk strong, anterior one crossing disk just before one-third of its length, posterior one a little beyond middle, descending obliquely forward across lateral lobe to reach its inferior margin just before middle, latter more or less straight, ascending distad; prosternal spines rather long; lateral lobes of meso-and metasterna moderately acute and directed slightly mesally, sternal grooves shallow.

Wings: Tegmina and hind wings at rest extending well beyond hind knees and apex of abdomen, of approximately similar length, anterior and postradial fields of tegmina more or less similarly reticulate, left stridulatory area relatively small with 3 strong proximal cross-veins.

Legs: anterior and middle femora with 2, posterior femur with 4 (left) or 5 (right) ventral spines; anterior femur with inner genicular lobe spired; anterior and middle tibiae smooth dorsally, with 5 or 6 ventral spines on each side; posterior femur with outer, and inner genicular lobes unarmed; posterior tibia dorsally with 7 outer and 10 inner, ventrally with 8 outer and 7 inner, rather irregularly distributed spines.

Abdomen: last abdominal tergum convex dorsally, almost transverse distally; supraanal plate flat, triangular, without a median longitudinal groove or depression; cerci robust, slightly surpassing supra-anal plate, inwardly curved, with strong but short apical and inner subapical spines; subgenital plate moderately elongate, curved upward in lateral view (cf. Fig. 5D), in ventral view more than twice as long as basal width, distinctly widened at base and with sides subparall for distal two-thirds, strongly carinate laterally, apex with a deep, V-shaped notch, styli long, about quarter of length of subgenital plate proper (cf. Fig. 5D), more or less straight and somewhat convergent in dorsal view, slightly curved upwards in lateral view.

Coloration: general appearance testaceous; eyes, fastigium to immediately above median ocellus, anterior faces of each antennal scape and pedicel, a spot on each scrobe between antennal insertions, labrum except marginally, distal and mesal parts of mandibles, middle of extreme anterior and posterior margins of pronotal disk, apices of femoral and tibial spines and spurs, extreme bases of penultimate tarsal segments, tarsal claws, and spines of cerci all blackish; a large semi-lunar maculation on vertex and occiput, a narrow, mediodorsal, longitudinal stripe and the extreme anterior margins of the lateral pronotal lobes all dark sepia-brown; anterior tibiae, except for tympanal regions, and hind wings infuscated; frons and upper parts of clypeus bright emeraldgreen in life (faded to testaceous on preservation); abdomen dorsally brown, speckled testaceous.

Measurements: body (without subgenital plate and styli) 31, pronotum 5.4, tegmen 32 x 6.0, stridulatory field 3.4 x 2.5, speculum 2.2, anterior femur 8.3, middle femur 9.0, posterior femur 19.5, subgenital plate (median, without styli) 5.2, styli 2.1 mm.

Allotype female (Fig. 4 B-C, 5 C-E): Same data and depository as holotype.

Agrees in general with holotype (except for lack of stridulatory mechanism and in abdominal terminalia), but pronotal disk has rather wider and more diffuse median dorsal stripe and extreme posterior margin almost entirely blackish: also right anterior femur has 3 (instead of 2) and posterior femora 3 (left) or 6 (right) ventral spines. Cerci simple, elongate-conical slightly inwardly curved, without apical and subapical darktipped spines: subgenital plate elongate-triangular, rounded apically and with a rather deep, narrow notch; ovipositor (Fig. 5E) strong, upwardly curved, about three-quarters as long as posterior femur, valves broadly margined dorsally and ventrally with reddishbrown, extreme margins very finely serrated distally.

Measurements: body 35 (with ovipositor 45.5), pronotum 5.4, tegmen 34.5 x 6.1, anterior femur 8.9, middle femur 9.1, posterior femur 20.5, ovipositor 16 mm.

Paratypes: 6 males ,, 8 females , same data and depository as holotype, except that 5 males end 4 females were collected by V.R. and E.G. Vickery; 2 males , 1 female , same data as holotype, but collected by D.A. Nickle and deposited in U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.E., U.S.A.; 5 males end 7 females , from same locality, but labelled as follows: VENEZUELA, (Estado Cojedes, 28 km S.J(un)ct(ion of) R(ou)t(e)s 8 & 13 on Rt. 8, forest, 13.VII. 1981, (D.) Otte et al. No. 13. In Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, U.S.A.

The paratypes agree well with the descriptions of the holotype and allotype though there is a moderate amount of variation in size. The number of ventral spines on the femora is also quite variable and there is considerable variation in the width and extent of the dark, median, dorsal stripe on the pronotal disk, the dark pigmentation of the dorsal and ventral ovipositor valves also varies in extent and intensity from virtually lacking (probably younger individuals) to almost black (presumably older individuals). In one or two specimens, the frons in pale olive-greenish, but in most specimens it is testaceous without indication of the bright emerald-green of the living insects. Size range: males 26.5-36.5 mm in length (without subgenital plate); females 26.5 (with ovipositor 35.5)36.5 (47.5) mm.

In addition to the adult paratypes proper, several nymphs with similar data (and same depositories) may be recorded, as follows: 2 ( females ), D.K. McE. Kevan, 1 ( female ) K.E. Kevan; 5 ( male , 4 females , 1 very small) V.R. & E.G. Vickery; 1 ( female ), (D) Otte et aL

Etymology: Named after Francisco Cerdá, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, whose tireless efforts in arranging the field trips, noted in the introduction, were instrumental in the discovery of the species.

 

Cocconotus sp.

Besides the above nymphs an unidentifiable immature specimen of another species of Cocconotus (?) was collected in Venezuela during the excursion mentioned in the introduction, as follows: VENEZUELA (Estado) Cojedes, Hato Mataclara, 60°30'E.,9°S., 12.VII.1981, (D) Otte et al., No. 11, 1 juv. (last-instar ;). (In Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, U.S.A.).

 

Cocconotus unicolor, new species

(Fig. 6)

It is with some diffidence that I describe this species, as it is known from but 2 males, one with damaged abdominal terminalia, but it is quite distinctive, and it would seem preferable not to leave it indescribed, coming, as it does, from the same geographical area as do the other species discussed herein. Is does not seem to be closely related to these and is possibly nearest to the Colombian C. gracilicauda Beier. 1960, though it lacks the four blackish spots on the frons and has characteristically long male cerci and styli.

Holotype, male : TRINIDAD, Morne Bleu, 2800 ft., nr. summit on small palm in high bush, 8.II.1942, D.K. McE. Kevan coil. In Lyman Entomological Museum, McGill University, Ste-Anne de Bellevue, Québec, Canada.

Size moderate for genus.

Head: in anterior view almost parallel-sided: eyes scarcely protruding beyond genae; middle ocellus rather small, antennal scape more or less cylindrical, with short, blunt, terminal process, antennal scrobes projecting for less than one-third of length of scape and scarcely beyond apex of fastigium of vertex, space between their apices less than the length of a scrobe; maxillary palpi long, fifth segment longer than third, fastigium of vertex very narrowly triangular, apically acute, basal tubercles distinct; genae, frons and clypeus smooth, virtually unpunctured, lateral frontal carinae low but distinct throughout, genal carinae low, obsolescent dorsally.

Thorax: pronotum granulate, but rather indistinctly so on lateral lobes, almost parallel-sided in dorsal view, very slightly longer than broad, anterior margin of disk distinctively convex, posterior margin also convex, metazona rather flat but distally with definite (though not laterally carinate) "shoulders", transverse sulci of disk strong, anterior one crossing disk before one-third of its length, posterior ("typical") sulcus crossing well beyond middle, intersected by a distinct, median, longitudinal groove extending from about middle of mesozona to anterior part of metazona, and descending obliquely forward across the lateral lobe (uniting with anterior transverse sulcus) to meet its inferior margin somewhat before its middle, latter somewhat sinuous, slightly oblique, ascending slightly distad; prosternal spines relatively short, very acute; lateral loves of meso and metasterna only moderately acute and directed slightly mesally, sternal grooves rather shallow.

Wings: tegmina and hind wings at rest extending far beyond hind knees; anterior field of tegmen distinctly less closely reticulate than postradial field, left stridulatory area rather small and with but a single distinct proximal cross-vein.

Legs: anterior femora with 3, middle femora with 3 (or 4 in paratype (right only)), posterior femora with 6 ventral spines (right proximal one greatly reduced) (paratype with 7 left); anterior genicular lobes unarmed, others with a very small spine on inner lobe (in paratype, right middle femur lacks spine); posterior tibiae dorsally with 6 left and 7 right outer, and 10 left and 12 right inner spines, ventrally with 9 outer and 8 inner spines (paratype with 8 and 7 respectively).

Abdomen: last abdominal tergum convex dorsally, posterior margin slightly rounded and with a transverse median depression; supra-anal plate bluntly triangular; cerci very long and slender (except at base) strongly tapered and inwardly curved and somewhat rugose, apices finely pointed; subgenital plate slightly curved upwards in lateral view (Fig. 6D), in ventral view more than three times as long as basal width, gradually narrowing from base to apex, strongly carinate laterally, apex with a shallow excision; styli long, slender cylindrical, slightly curved upwards, a little less than half length of subgenital plate.

Coloration: more or less uniform light brown to testaceous (appendages paler); eyes mottled; fastigium blackish dorsally and immediately above median ocellus, later pale, narrowly margined blackish; labrum blackish-brown; mandibles reddish-brown, apices black; hind wings infumated; penultimate segments of tarsi infuscated; femoral and tibial spines and spur, and tarsal claws pale, tipped reddish-brown to blackish. Measurements: body (without subgenital plate) cat 30.5, pronotum 6.2, tegmen 34.5 x 6.2, stridulatory field 3.0 x 2.1, speculum 2.0, anterior femur 9,9, middle femur 10.0, posterior femur 19.5, subgenital plate (median, without styli) 6.9, styli 2.7 mm.

Paratype: 1 male, same data and depository as holotype.

Agrees very well with holotype but is very slightly smaHer with damaged abdominal cerci and lacking styli. The spines on the legs differ in number, as indicated in the description.

Etymology: From the almost complete lack of dark pigmentation.

 

Genus Nastonotus I. Bolívar, 1890

Three species are currently recognized in this genus (Beier, 1960, 1963), one from Colombia and two from Venezuela (one of these also from Curacao). As none is well known and the differences used to separate them seem largely to be a matter of relative tegminal length, I prefer to record the following specimen as a member of the type-species, although it differs in certain minor features from descriptions of this.

 

Nastonotus tarsatus I. Bolívar, 1890

This species was described from Caracas and Valencia, Venezuela, though the latter locality was omitted by Beier (1960). The specimen below agrees with the original and subsequent descriptions of the male, insofar as they go, except that the tegmina and hind wings slightly surpass the abdomen instead of stopping short at the 8th tergum (this is not merely a matter of the present specimen having a contracted abdomen as the tegmina are longer than described (23 against 18, for a body-length of 30 mm). It is almost certain, however, that this character is quite variable, though comparable tegminal lengths are supposedly characteristic for the Colombian N. foreli Carl, 1921 (a species which seems to vary considerably in size). In the third species, N. reductus (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1895), from western Venezuela, the wings are said to be much shorter. The male cerci of this genus are very characteristic, being heavy, with an elongate dorsolateral process before the middle and an extremely long, fine, curved, whiplike, apical spine. The terminalia of the male type of N. tarsatus are, unfortunately partly damaged and the cerci lack their dorsolateral processes. In N. foreli these are finger-like and in N. reductus they are said to be tubular (Beier 1960), whereas in the present specimen, they are neither, but are strongly elongate-conical, more or less straight, that on the right cercus being comparable in length with that shown by Carl (1921) and Beier (1960) for N. foreli, but not so finger-like, while that on the left cercus is reduced in size and appears somewhat deformed. Furthermore, the greatly elongate apical spines of the cerci of the present specimen are even longer than shown in the figures of Carl and Beier (IL cc.); how they compare with those of the other two species I cannot say, except that the original descriptions stress their length. Whatever the status of the other two species, I believe that the following specimen most probably belongs to N. tarsatus. In this specimen it may be noted that the frons, even after preservation, is rather bright green, except for being narrowly margined black ventrally. This is yet another example of what seems to be quite a common phenomenon in Cocconotini (a protective coloration of the front of the head as it faces upwards from a place of concealment among tightly packed, elongate foliage which hides the rest of the insect), but a character which, though perhaps not universally present in any given species, usually fades to obscurity on preservation. The specimen bears the following data: VENEZUELA, (Estado) Cojedes, Hato Mataclara, 60°30'E., 9°S., 12.VII. 1981, (D.) Otte et al. No. 11 (In the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, U.S.A.)

The specimen also bears Dr. G.M. Hewitt's cytological preparation number, V.81.

 

Miscellaneous Records of Cocconitini

As most species of the tribe seem to be rather poorly known, opportunity is here taken to append a few records of certain other cocconotine material in the collection of the Lyman Enotomogical Museum. No attempt has been made at this time to list specimens in other institutions.

 

Calamoptera sp. near C. immunis (Salker, 1870). "ECIJAT)OR": (no closer locality), in bananas, 15.1X.1959, H. Buther (? - not fully legible, 1 female Calamoptera is a Central American genus (Beier 1960, 1962, 1963), but. C. immunis has been recorded curiously from Colombia. I am not altogether satisfied that this specimen originated in Ecuador: it may be that it is an adventive intercepted in Canada (if so, probably in Montréal) and that "Ecuador" is merely "Hearsay".

Idiarthron subnotatum Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1985. PANAMA: Canal Zone (no further data), 1 male .

Idiarthron subquadratum Saussure & Pictet, 1898. MEXICO: S.W. Chiapas, E1 Chorreadero, Tuxtla Gutierrez, 26.1X.1961, F. Pacheco M-, 3 males y 3 females ; the same, but coil. Jorge Avilla R-, 1 male , 1 female ; the same, but coil. Xavier Vasquez G-, 2 females These differ from the key and diagnosis of Beier (1960) in that the amount of black on the anterior and middle coxae is mostly confined to the dorsal and ventral parts, as in I. atrispinum (Star, 1874), but this is obviously subject to variation. The extreme southwestern locality in Mexico is in keeping with the previously known distribution of ISubquadratum (Guatemala and Costa Rica) Another related species, I. dentatum Beier, 1962, occurs in Nicaragua.

Nesoecia nigrispina (Star, 1874). MEXICO: Vera Cruz, Paso del Toro, 22.1X.1961, C. G. Martell, 1d, 1 juv. (~).

Schedocentrus (Proidiarthron) innotatus (Walker, 1879). PERU: Madre de Dios Dept., Tambopata Reserve 50 kg S. Puerto Maldonado on River Tambopata, 3-8.I.1984, A. T. Finnamore, 1 male , 1 female . There is also a male of a new species of the genus near S. (S). nigrescens Beier, with the same data.

Schedocentrus (S.) basinotatus Beier, 1960. SURINAM: Suriname Dist., Carolina Kreek, 20.VII.1966, (no collector, ? W. Hoek), 1female; almost certainly this species. Known previously only by the male holotype from Guayana; differs from the description of this in being larger (body length without ovipositor 55mm.) and in having (it mould seem) the granular tubercles on the pronotum somewhat coarser than described, though interpretation is subjective. There are also 3 instead of 2, dorsal spines on the left (but not right) middle tibia. The ovipositor is moderately robust, almost straight and, including base,23 mm long.

Bliastonotus bivittatus (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1895). SURINAM: Paramaribo, 18. II.1966, G. van Vreden,1 female (topotype).

Cocconotus degeeri (Stal, 1861). PANAMA. Canal Zone (no further data), 1o.

Nesonotus denticulatus Brunner von Wattenwyl), 1895). ST. LUCIA. "St. Lucia, West Indies, October 1915. Agricultural Superintendent collector,"l9. This agrees fully with the description given by Brunner von Wattenwyl (1895) and the diagnosis of Beier (1960), except that the reddish-brown colour of the frons is very dark, so that the median vertical line, indicated by the latter author, is not evident. Originally described by Brunner (op. cit.) as being from "America meridionalis", interpreted literally (though with a query) by Beier as "? Sud-Amerika", the species now proves to be Antillean, like all its congeners.

Nesonotus longelaminatus (Brunner von Wattenway, 1895). GRENADA: Botanic Gardens, 26.VIII.1905, R.D. Anstead, I female: the same, 19.III.1907. H.A. Ballou, 1 male , 1 female; St. David's Parish, 4.VII.1960. R. S. Bigelow, 2 females.

Nesonotus sp. near N. tricornis (Thumberg, 1915) DOMINICA: Dominica, imported (no date, but early 20th Cent.), H.M. Lefroy, lo; Ex. Dominica, imported with bananas, taken at Thorne, Yorkshire, England, V.1955, by W. Bunting, 1 juv. (c53; the same VIIII. 1955, 1Q; Layou River Canyon, 17.XII.1978, A.T. Finnamore, 2 juvs. ( females).N. trocornis was originally described from the small northern Antillean island of St. Barthélemy, and is known also from considerably further south, it probably belongs to a new species.

Colobotettix sp near C. marginatus (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1895). MEXICO: 24 milles W. Cindad Diego, 1000', 21.VII.1964, L.A. Kelton, 2 femalesex Canadian National Insect Collection' Ottawa . The female of C. marginatus has not been described. The measurement of the specimens are distinctly larger than those given for the male of this species: body length (without ovipositor) 30-33, pronotum 6.0-6.8, tegmen 5.0, hind femur 16.5-19, ovipositor 17-18 mm. (last strongly curved upwards apically). The pronotal disk also lacks a definite median tubercle on the anterior margin, the median longitudinal sulcus on the mesozona is indistinct and there is no carinula on the metazona. The larger female has only 4 (instead of 5) outer ventral spines on each hind femur. The antennae have not been described for C. marginatus' but those of the present specimens are very distinctly annualted with black at widely spaced intervals.

Acknowledgements

The expenses involved in the collection of the recent Venezuelan material in the possession of the Lyman Entomological Museum were met partly from endowment funds of the Museum, partly from a travel grant from the Faculty of Graduate Studies, McGill University, partly from a grant to the author from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and partly out-of-pocket. The author wishes to thank Dr. D. Otte of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and Dr. D.A. Nickle of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., for the loan of other material studied. Thi photographs are by Pierre Langlois of the Department of Entomology, Macdonald College, McGill University.

 

1 This is abnormal, female allotype and paratypes of both sexes have 3 such spines on each middle femur, except for 2 males with 2 on one side and 3 on the other (the two differing as to the side involved) and 1 female with only 2 on right side. 2 In paratypes there are often 7 such spines on one side or the other; in allotype 7 on right. 3 This corresponds to the abnormal reduction of outer ventral spines on corresponding femur (see Footnote 3), in all other specimens the number is 6. 4 In the allotype and some paratypes the number is 11-12. These specimens have not been seen by me since 1942; those queried may have been sent during the Second World War to the late Dr. L. Chopard of the Paris Museum, or they may conceivably (though not probably) be in the British Museum (Natural History), London.

Fig 1
Figura 1
FIGURA 1. Cojedebius kathleenae, n. sp. A, B. male holotype C, female allotype.
Figura 2
Fig 2
FIGURA 2. Cojedebius kathleenae, n. sp. A, male holotype, frontal view of head; B. the same, male allotype; holotype, lateral view of abdominal terminalia; D, the same, female allotype.
Fig 3
Fig 3
FIGURA 3. Cocconotus insularis (Bruner), Arima, Trinidad, A.B. adult c,; C. frontal view of head; D, lateral wiew of abdominal terminalia of same; E, posterior view of abdominal terminalia showing apical spines and long subapical spurs.
Fig 4
Fig 4
FIGURA 4. Cocconotus cerdai, n. sp. A, male holotype; B. C, female allotype.
Fig 5
Fig 5
FIGURA 5. Cocconotus cerdai, n. sp. A, male holotype, frontal view of head, B. the same, d paratype; C, the same, female allotype; D. abdominal terminalia, c, paratype; E, the same female allotype (note, the ovipositor valves have become slightly separated apically).
Fig 6
Fig 6
FIGURA 6. Cocconotus unicolor, n. sp. A, B. male holotype C, frontal view of head of same; D, lateral view of abdominal terminalia of same.

REFERENCES

BEIER, M. 1960. Orthoptera Tettigoniidae (Pseudophyllinae II) Das Thierreich, Berlin; Salter de Gruyter & Co. 74: 1-396.

----------. 1962. Neue neotropische Pseudphyllinen (Orth. - Tettigon.). Ann. naturhist. Mus. Wien, 65: 81.116.

----------. 1963. Tettigoniidea: Subfam. Pseudophyllinae. Orthopterorum Catalogus. 's- Gravenhage; W. Junk, 5: 1-246.

BRUNNER, L. 1906. Report on the Orthoptera of Trinidad, West Indies. J.IV.Y. ent. Soc. 14: 135-165.

BRUNNER von WATTENWYL, C. 1895. Monographie der Pseudophylliden. Wien K. -K. Zoologish-Botanischen Gesellschaft: IV-282 pp. - X pl.

CARL, J. 1961 . Phasgonurides nouveaux du Muséum de Genéve. Rev. suisse ZooL 28: 301-309.

MORRIS, G. K., and BEIER, M. 1982. Song structure and descriptions of some Costa Rica katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigonindae). Trans Amer. ent. Soc. 108: 283-314.